Glossary

The vibration monitoring industry has specialized jargon that is commonly used when talking about vibration sensors, accelerometers and associated applications. It's important that you understand common terminology to communicate effectively with vibration monitoring, reliability, condition monitoring and process automation professionals. We hope you find our glossary useful to find specialized terms and definitions used across vibration, condition monitoring and predictive maintenance.

 






ABSOLUTE PRESSURE

The pressure measured relative to a perfect vacuum.

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

A transducer that has an internal reference chamber sealed at or close to 0 psia (full vacuum).

ACCELERATION

A vector that specifies the time rate of change (derivative) of velocity.

ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY

Standard, by international agreement, g = 9.80665 m/s2 = 386.088 in/s2 = 32.174 ft/s2. Actual acceleration of gravity varies depending on altitude and latitude of location of measurement. Variation is less than +/- 0.5% in industrialized areas of the world, and less than 0.3% in the 48 contiguous states of the USA.

ACCELERATION LIMIT (Environmental)

The maximum acceleration level specified for an instrument to which it can be subjected without physical damage. The maximum vibration or shock acceleration to which an instrument can be subjected without permanent damage.

ACCELEROMETER

A transducer which converts input accelerations into outputs (usually electrical) which are proportional to the input acceleration values.

ACCURACY

The ratio of the error to the full-scale Output or the ratio of the Error to the Output, as specified, expressed in percent. More correctly: “Uncertainty”. Note: Accuracy may be expressed in terms of units of Measurand, or as with +/- percent of Full Scale Output.

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

The pressure caused by the weight of the earth’s atmosphere; varies with geographic location, altitude, and weather.

ACOUSTIC SENSITIVITY

The output of a transducer, not due to rigid body motions, in response to a specified acoustical environment. Usually expressed as equivalent RMS measurand induced by a specified sound pressure level spectrum having an overall value of 140 dB referred to 0.0002 μbar (20 μPa) RMS.

AMBIENT CONDITIONS

The conditions (pressure, temperature, etc.) of the medium surrounding the case of the instrument.

AMPLITUDE LINEARITY

The closeness of the calibration curve of sensitivity to a straight line over a stated range of measurand amplitudes, at a stated fixed frequency.

ANGULAR FREQUENCY

Angular frequency (also known as circular frequency (omega)) is the torsional vibration frequency in radians per second. Multiply by 2π and express in cycles per second (cps) or hertz (Hz).

ANTIRESONANCE

A condition that exists in a system when with a constant applied excitation where any change in frequency causes an increase in system response.

BAND-PASS FILTER

A Filter having a single transmission band extending from a lower cutoff frequency greater than zero to a finite upper cutoff frequency.

BAROMETRIC PRESSURE

See ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.

BASE STRAIN SENSITIVITY

The sensitivity to strains applied to the base by bending, in the absence of any rigid body motion of the transducer. Usually expressed in equivalent measurand units at 250 μstrain applied to the mounting structure.

BEL

The ratio of two amounts of power expressed as a logarithm to the base 10. A decibel (dB) is one-tenth of a bel.

BEST STRAIGHT LINE

A line midway between the two parallel straight lines closest together and enclosing all output vs. measurand values on a calibration curve.

BRIDGE

A Wheatstone bridge configuration utilizing four resistive elements.

BRIDGE RESISTANCE

See INPUT IMPEDANCE and OUTPUT IMPEDANCE.

BROADBAND

Vibration signals that are unfiltered. Signals at all frequencies contribute to the measured value.

CALIBRATION

The comparison of transducer voltage outputs against the outputs of a reference standard.

CALIBRATION (As applied to vibration sensors)

An orderly procedure for determining sensitivity as a function of frequency, temperature, amplitude, etc. Yields deviations from correct values used for inferring true magnitudes from indicated magnitudes. Calibration may also refer to adjusting an instrument, lessening deviations from a standard sensitivity.

CASE ISOLATION

The minimum resistance, measured at a specified dc voltage, between the output common of an instrument and the entire metallic enclosure of the instrument.

CENTER OF SEISMIC MASS

The point within an accelerometer where acceleration forces are considered to be summed.

CHARGE AMPLIFIER

An amplifier that presents an output voltage that is proportional to the total electrical charge presented to the input.

COMMON MODE PRESSURE

See LINE PRESSURE.

COMPENSATION

Provision of a supplemental device, circuit, or special materials to counteract known sources of error.

COMPLIANCE

The ratio of change in translational (or rotational) displacement of an elastic element to the corresponding change of force (or torque). Compliance is the reciprocal of stiffness.

COMPLIANCE VOLTAGE

The maximum voltage that a constant current source will go to maintain the selected current.

COMPRESSIONAL WAVE

A wave in an elastic medium causing an element of the medium to change volume, a result of compressive or tensile stresses. It is normally a longitudinal wave.

CONSTANT CURRENT

Electric current independent of either voltage or resistances and fixed at a specific value. A constant current power supply varies its output voltage, up to its maximum compliance voltage, to maintain the fixed current into the load.

CREST FACTOR

For an oscillating quantity, the ratio of the peak value to the rms value.

CRITICAL DAMPING

Critical damping (Cc) is the minimum viscous damping that will allow a displaced system to return to its initial position without oscillation or overshoot. Cc=2 √mk

CRITICAL FREQUENCY

A particular resonant frequency (see Resonance) at which damage (or degradation in performance) is likely.

CRITICAL SPEED

A characteristic speed of a rotating system, such that the predominant excitation occurs at resonances of the system.

CROSS TALK

The signal observed in one channel due to a signal in another channel. “Cross talk” is erroneously applied to transverse sensitivity of transducers including shakers.

CUT-OFF FREQUENCY

The frequency above or below the frequency of maximum response of a filter at which the response to a sinusoidal signal is 3 dB below the maximum response.

CYCLE

The complete sequence of values of a periodic quantity that occurs during any one period.

DAMPING

Dissipation of oscillatory or vibratory energy with motion or with time. Critical damping (q.v.) is that value that provides the most rapid response to a step function without overshoot. Damping ratio is then C/Cc.

DAMPING RATIO

For a system with linear viscous damping, the ratio of the actual damping coefficient to the critical damping coefficient.

DAMPING RATIO CHANGE

The change in the damping over a specified temperature range. Usually specified in %/°C. This specification usually found in damped accelerometers such as piezoresistive and variable capacitance accelerometers.

DEAD VOLUME

The volume inside the pressure port of a transducer at room temperature and barometric pressure.

DECIBEL

Ratios of identical quantities are expressed in decibel or deciBel or dB units. Magnitude thus refers to some standard value, in terms of the base 10 logarithm of that ratio. In measuring acoustic or vibration power (as in PSD or ASD of random vibration), the number of dB = 10 log10 P/P0. P0, the reference level, equals 0 dB. In measuring the more common voltage-like quantities such as acceleration, the number of dB = 20 log10 E/E0. E0, the reference level, equals 0 dB.

DEFLECTION

The change in length along the primary axis or the distance a diaphragm moves at the center between no-load and rated-load conditions.

DEGREES OF FREEDOM

In mechanics, the total number of directions of motion (of all the points being considered) on a structure being modeled or otherwise evaluated. In statistics, the number of independent variables used in constructing a mathematical model representing some collection of random variables.

DETERMINISTIC VIBRATION

A vibration whose instantaneous value at any future time can be predicted by an exact mathematical expression. Sinusoidal vibration is the classic example. Complex vibration is less simple (two or more sinusoids). See also Periodic Vibration.

DIAPHRAGM

The sensing membrane which is deformed when pressure is applied.

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

The difference in pressure between two measurement points.

DIFFERENTIAL INPUT (Amplifier)

A symmetrical input circuit configured such that both input lines have equal impedance and transfer characteristics with respect to the transducer grounding structure. The amplifier then amplifies only the difference between the two inputs, rejecting any common signal (Common Mode).

DISCHARGE TIME CONSTANT

A term sometimes found on IEPE datasheets. It is the time constant created by the output characteristics of the internal electronics. The time constant determines the low frequency point of the accelerometer e.g., the -5% low frequency point is 0.5/time constant. It is the time required for the sensor’s electronics to discharge to 37%of its original value following a step function input.

DISPLACEMENT

The change in position of a body or point with respect to a reference point. A vector quantity specifying the change of position of a body or particle, usually measured from the mean or rest position.

DISTORTION

In mechanics, any unwanted motion. If sinusoidal motion were desired at a fundamental frequency, any motion at harmonics or subharmonics of that frequency, or any mechanical "hash" (perhaps due to parts colliding). In electronic measurements, any unwanted signal; e.g. amplifiers may generate unwanted signals by clipping, nonlinearity or harmonic distortion.

DOUBLE AMPLITUDE

The total excursion of a simple harmonic quantity; the peak-to-peak value. DURATION: Of a shock pulse, how long it lasts. For "classical" pulses, time is usually measured between instants when the amplitude is greater than 10% of peak value.

DYNAMIC MASS (Apparent Mass, Effective Mass)

The complex ratio of force to acceleration at a point in a mechanical system during simple harmonic motion. Usually expressed as: Za=F/a

ENDEVCO

An acronym for ENgineering DEVelopment COmpany. A leader in developing instrumentation for the sensing of physical phenomena.

END POINTS

The outputs at the specified upper and lower limits of the Range.

EXCITATION, ELECTRICAL

The voltage or current applied to the input terminals of the transducer.

EQUALIZATION

The process whereby the response of a vibration system is adjusted to a flat or shaped spectrum.

ERROR

The algebraic difference between the indicated value and the true value of the measurand. In a transducer, usually expressed in percent of the full-scale output reading of the transducer.

ERROR BAND

The band of maximum deviations of output values from a specified reference line or curve as a result of causes due to the instrument.

EXCITATION

The external electrical voltage and/or current applied to a transducer for its proper operation. Mechanical excitation is a mechanical input driving force into a structure such as from a hammer, shaker, etc.

FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM (FFT)

A shortcut method implemented in computers and digital measurement instrumentation to quickly create a frequency domain spectrum, often in real-time.

FIGURE OF MERIT (ACCELEROMETER)

The measure of the efficiency of an accelerometer’s design. F of M = Charge Sensitivity X Fn 2.

FILTER

A device to pass certain frequencies (pass band) but block other frequencies (stop band). Classified as low-pass (high-stop), high-pass(low-stop), band-pass or band-stop. Filters may be mechanical, electrical, or optical.

FLUSH DIAPHRAGM

Sensing element is located on the very tip of the transducer (No pressure port).

FORCED VIBRATION

The vibratory motion of a system caused by some mechanical excitation. If excitation is periodic and continuous, motion eventually becomes steady-state.

FOURIER SERIES

A series which expresses the values of a periodic function in terms of discrete frequency components that are harmonically related to each other

FREE FIELD (Sound)

The field in a homogeneous, isotropic medium free from acoustically reflecting boundaries. Usually a field in which the effects of the boundaries are negligible over the region of interest.

FREE VIBRATION

Free vibration occurs without force, as after a reed is plucked.

FREQUENCY

The reciprocal of the period in seconds (of a periodic function) (1/T). Usually given in hertz (Hz), meaning cycles per second (cps).

FREQUENCY, NATURAL

The frequency of free oscillations of the sensing element of a fully assembled transducer. The frequency of a sinusoidally applied measurand at which the transducer output lags the measurand by 90 degrees.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

The change, with frequency, of the sensitivity with respect to the reference sensitivity of a transducer, for sinusoidally varying applied measurand within a stated range of frequencies. The output signal expressed as a function of the frequency of the input signal.

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

A description of the resolution into frequency components, giving the amplitude (sometimes also phase) of each component.

FULL-SCALE OUTPUT

The algebraic difference between the end points of the range. Usually expressed as plus or minus one-half of the algebraic difference.

GAGE PRESSURE

The pressure above (or below) atmospheric. Represents positive difference between measured pressure and existing atmospheric pressure. Can be converted to absolute by adding actual atmospheric pressure value.

GAIN

Transfer characteristic expressing the ratio of output voltage to the input signal of an amplifier. For a voltage amplifier: expressed as volts/volt, as mV/mV, or as dimensionless number. For a charge amplifier: expressed as millivolts per Pico Coulomb (mV/pC).

GAIN RANGE

The minimum and maximum values of gain that are available in an amplifier without causing any degradation in performance parameters beyond the limits of the specification. For a charge amplifier: expressed as from ____mV/pC to ____mV/pC.

GROUND LOOP (Earth Loop)

The closed electrical circuit formed by the connection of a ground wire to several ground terminals at different locations.

FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY

The number of cycles per second of the lowest-frequency component of a complex, cyclic motion. (See also Harmonic and Subharmonic). g: The acceleration produced by Earth's gravity. By international agreement, the value for 1 gravitational unit is 9.80665 m/s2 = 386.087 in/sec 2 = 32.1739 ft/sec2. g UNITS or GRAVITATIONAL UNITS: A way to express acceleration in terms of the gravitational constant, is equal to in/sec 22/ 386.087 in/sec2 or to m/s2 / 9.80665 m/s2 . GAGE FACTOR: The ratio of the relative change of resistance to the relative change in length of a Resistive Strain Transducer. GF = ΔR/R ΔL/L

HYSTERESIS

The maximum difference between output readings for the same measurand point, one point obtained while increasing from zero and the other while decreasing from full scale. The points are taken on the same continuous cycle. The deviation is expressed as a percent of full scale.

IMPACT PRESSURE

The pressure in a moving fluid which is exerted parallel to the direction of flow, caused by the inertial effects of the mass of the fluid. Also called DYNAMIC PRESSURE or VELOCITY PRESSURE.

INDEPENDENT LINEARITY

Maximum deviation from the linear regression line (least squares fit) for all measured points, expressed as percent of full scale output.

INPUT IMPEDANCE

The resistance measured across the excitation terminals of a transducer at room temperature.

INSULATION (ISOLATION) RESISTANCE

The DC resistance, expressed in ohms, measured between any electrical connector pin or lead wire and the transducer body or case. Normally measured at 50 Vdc.

LINEARITY

The maximum deviation of the calibration curve from a specified straight line expressed as a percent of full scale output and only measured on increasing measurand.

LINE PRESSURE

The maximum pressure in the pressure vessel or pipe for differential pressure measurement. Also called COMMON MODE PRESSURE.

MEASURAND

The physical quantity, property, or condition which is measured. (e.g.: pressure, load, weight, acceleration).

MEDIUM (MEDIA)

The fluid(s) in contact with the diaphragm, the pressure of which is being measured.

NEAR FIELD

Describes locations within a few inches to a few feet from the explosive event. The area is subjected to a very fast rise time, high amplitude, high frequency energy.

NONLINEARITY

Used interchangeably with “linearity.”

NONREPEATABILITY

Used interchangeably with “repeatability.”

OUTPUT

The electrical signal measured at the output terminals which is produced by an applied input to a transducer.

OUTPUT IMPEDANCE

The resistance as measured on the output terminals of a transducer at standard temperature, with no measurand applied, and with the excitation terminals open-circuited.

OVERRANGE

The maximum pressure or load which may be applied to the transducer without causing a permanent change in the performance specifications.

PARTIAL PRESSURE

The pressure which would be exerted by one constituent of a mixture of gases, if it alone were to occupy the same volume as the mixture. See also TOTAL PRESSURE.

PASCAL

Pressure of one Newton (force) per square meter.

PHASE SHIFT

The phase angle between the output and the applied signal.

PRESSURE HEAD

The height of a liquid column at the base of which a given pressure would be developed due to gravity acting on the fluid mass.

PSI

Pounds per square inch.

PSIA

Pounds per square inch absolute.

PSID

Pounds per square inch differential.

PSIG

Pounds per square inch gage.

RANGE

The measurand values, over which a transducer is intended to measure, specified by their upper and lower limits.

REFLECTED OVERPRESSURE

The total pressure that results at the interface when a shock wave traveling in a medium encounters a discontinuity such as a rigid surface or another shock wave.

REPEATABILITY

The ability of a transducer to reproduce output readings when the same measurand value is applied to it consecutively, under the same conditions, and in the same direction. Repeatability is expressed as the maximum difference between output readings as a percent of full scale.

RESOLUTION

A measure of ability to delineate, detail, or distinguish between nearly equal values of quantity. Also referred to as “threshold” – lowest level of valid measurement.

RESPONSE TIME

The time required for the output of a transducer to increase from zero to some specified percentage of its final value when excited by a step change in measurand.

RISE TIME

The time required for the output of a transducer to rise from 10% to 90% of its final value as a result of a step change of measurand.

SEALED (or SEALED GAGE) PRESSURE

Pressure measured with reference to the pressure in a sealed container; the container is usually within the sensor.

SENSING ELEMENT

The part of the transducer which reacts directly in response to the measurand.

SENSITIVITY

The ratio of change in transducer output to a change in the value of the measurand. Specified sensitivity is usually averaged over the full scale range of the measurand.

SHUNT CALIBRATION

The change in electrical output caused by placing a fixed resistor between the appropriate transducer terminals. Used “in the field” for quick calibration.

S.I. SYSTEM

The international (metric) system of units.

SPAN

The algebraic difference between the limits of the range from zero to full scale.

SPECIFICATIONS

The group of error limits within which each device will operate.

STAGNATION PRESSURE

The sum of the static pressure and the impact pressure. It can be measured at a point where the velocity of the fluid is zero.

STATIC PRESSURE

The pressure of a fluid, exerted normal to the direction along which the fluid flows.

STRAIN GAGE

A measuring element for converting mechanical strain into an electrical signal.

SUPPLY VOLTAGE

See EXCITATION.

TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED

The range of temperature over which a transducer can operate up to full scale and still meet all specifications. Meggitt’s Endevco pressure transducers incorporate temperature compensation.

TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION

The utilization of supplementary devices, materials, or components with the transducer to minimize sources of error caused by changing temperature.

TERMPERATURE, OPERATING

The range of temperature over which a transducer may be safely operated up to full scale without causing failure; but specifications may not be met.

THERMAL SENSITIVITY SHIFT

The change in sensitivity due to a change in ambient temperature. Usually expressed as the maximum percentage change in sensitivity.

THERMAL ZERO SHIFT

The change in zero balance due to a change in ambient temperature. Usually expressed as the maximum percentage change of FSO over the compensated temperature range.

TOTAL PRESSURE

The sum of the pressures (partial pressures) which each gas (in a mixture of gases) would exert were it to occupy the containing vessel alone.

TRANSDUCER

A device (or medium) that converts energy from one form to another. The term is generally applied to devices that take a physical phenomenon (pressure, temperature, humidity, flow, etc.) and convert it to an electrical signal.

VACUUM

Pressure measured below atmospheric pressure and with reference to atmospheric pressure (Negative gage pressure).

VELOCITY PRESSURE

See IMPACT PRESSURE.

ZERO ADJUSTMENTS

Used when “setting up” a transducer to adjust the output signal to zero when zero load/pressure is applied.

ZERO BALANCE

The output signal of the transducer with rated excitation and with no-load applied, usually expressed in millivolts. Also called ZMO and zero pressure output.

ZERO RETURN

The difference in zero balance measured immediately before rated load application of specified duration and measured after removal of the load, and when the output has stabilized.

GROUNDED OR INSULATED (Ungrounded) TRANSDUCER

Refers to the presence or absence of an electrical connection between the "low" side (signal return) of the transducer element and the portion of the transducer intended to be in contact with the test structure.